Contributes to the education of scientists qualified for developing both basic and applied research.

Investigation Areas

Multidisciplinary Research

Nanoscience and nanotechnology study the phenomenon and manipulation of materials at the atomic, molecular and macromolecular scales, at which properties differ substantially from those observed at larger scales. Its scope extends to the full spectrum of the sciences and includes fields like medicine, physics, engineering, and chemistry. Owing to their applications, these disciplines constitutes important motors of the new industry and the knowledge society.


Most drugs used today are orally administered and are distributed via the blood stream to all tissues; notwithstanding, the medicines are needed at specific cell targets. The pharmaceutical industry has traditionally attempted to minimize toxic and not desirable side-effects through molecular engineering, via the improvement of drug delivery and distribution avoiding toxic effects and reaching sustained and stable plasma concentration throughout drug treatment. These problems can be minimized by time programmed and site-directed delivery of drugs. For sustained and targeted drug delivery treatments, we plan to use nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated in synthetic or natural polymers, a strategy proved to cause controlled, slow drug release delivery reaching stable plasma concentrations. NPs can also be used for site-directed drug delivery to tumors for example. Another useful strategy is to formulate NPs endowed with electromagnetic properties coupled to the use of magnets localized properly in the close proximity of the target organ, allowing accumulation of NPs in the targeted tissue. Such NPs will first be assayed first in in-vitro tumour cell cultures ensuring their accumulation in the cells endowed with proper mechanisms of endocytosis to the tissue cells. Promising drugs loaded in NPs that pass preclinical and environmental toxicology will enter future in-vivo pharmacokinetic studies.

In such a case, NPs alone and drug-loaded NPs will be tested separately. Depending on the intended application, these promising medicines will be administered in-vivo  using experimental animals, considering the special needs and pharmacological opportunities of each novel component. Blood, fecal and urinary concentration of the administered NPs  or their components will be assessed in normal healthy experimental animals. In order to assess specific tissue accumulation, NPs will be labeled with a tracer that allows their detection without invasive procedures (i.e. technecium), or alternatively will be administered to subjects scheduled for surgical extirpation of the selected tissue.

Additional new studies

Parallel studies, developed within the past few years, will focus on the use of natural NPs polymers as potential anti-obesity and/or anti-lipidemic drugs. Parallel studies are addressing anti-inflammatory effects of xanthines to modulate the body response to chronic neuropathic pain. In addition, a new line of progress is related to the use of natural products derived from an Antartica plant to act as a solar screen as a potential medicine to reduce the detrimental skin effects of high solar radiation. This formulation will imply the possible combined use of a natural product with a free radical trap profile plus an anti-oxidant agent.Promising results will allow the prompt formulation of these chemical(s) as NPs to protect human skin from UV radiation. Emerging opportunities include the preparation of weed extracts with anti hervicide properties as well as antimicrobial activity.

Moreover, another line of research includes an effort related to natural products with an antiviral profile of local endemic Chilean plants.

Improvement of farm animals

In the context of this proposal, we will develop NPs loaded with drugs, such as asthaxantine or antibiotics to improve the rate of assimilation of these drugs that will next be incorporated into feeding pellets of farm animals assuring stable plasma contents. Herein, we plan to improve the quality of products used in aquaculture and swine farming.



  1. D. Noni-Morales; D. Barrosa, S.A. Castro, C. Ortiz
    Germination and seedling growth of the Chilean native grass Polypogon australis in soil polluted with diesel oil
    Journal International Journal of Phytoremediation (2019) 21, 12-18
  2. J.P. Huidobro-Toro, V. Latapiat, N. Barrera
    Combined in silico plus electrophysiological studies identify molecular determinants of ivermectin and zinc P2X4R allosterism
    Purinergic Signalling (2018) 14(Suppl 1): 1
  3. M.V. Donoso, F. Hernández, J.P. Huidobro-Toro
    Cellular Mechanisms Associated to the Spontaneous and the Mechanically-Stimulated ATP Release by Mesentery Endothelial Cells
    Purinergic Signalling (2019) 14:S1–S122
  4. S. Lux, N. Lobos, C. Lespay-Rebolledo, E. Salas-Huenuleo, M.J. Kogan, C. Flores, M. Pinto, A. Hernandez, T. Pelissier, L. Constandil
    The antinociceptive effect of resveratrol in bone cancer pain is inhibited by the Silent Information Regulator 1 inhibitor selisistat
    Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 71 (2019), pp. 816–825
  5. C. Muñoz-Shugulí, F.J. Rodríguez, J.E. Bruna, M.J. Galotto, C. Sarantópoulos, M.A. Favaro Perez, M. Padula
    Cetylpyridinium bromide-modified montmorillonite as filler in low density polyethylene nanocomposite films
    Applied Clay Science 168 (2019) 203–210


  1. C. Carvallo, D. Contreras, G. Ugarte, R. Delgado, F. Pancetti, C. Rozas, R. Piña, L. Constandil, M.L. Zeise, B. Morales
    Single and Repeated Administration of Methylphenidate Modulates Synaptic Plasticity in Opposite Directions via Insertion of AMPA Receptors in Rat Hippocampal Neurons
    Frontiers in Pharmacology 9 (2018) 1485 - 1502
  2. J. Retamal, A. Reyes, P. Ramirez, D. Bravo, A. Hernandez, T. Pelissier, L. Villanueva, L. Constandil
    Burst-Like Subcutaneous Electrical Stimulation Induces BDNF-Mediated, Cyclotraxin B-Sensitive Central Sensitization in Rat Spinal Cord
    Front. Pharmacol. 9:1143
  3. Abhishek Sahu, Youngmin Hwang, Cristian Vilos, Jong-Min Lim, Sunghyun Kim, Won Il Choi, Giyoong Tae
    A novel alendronate functionalized nanoprobe for simple colorimetric detection of cancer-associated hypercalcemia
    Nanoscale, 2018,10, 13375-13383
  4. C. Godoy-Guzmán, J.L. Fuentes, M. Osses, L. Toledo-Ordoñez, P.A. Orihuela
    The Uterine Tube: From Herophilus to Horacio Croxatto
    Int. J. Morphol., 36(2):387-390, 2018
  5. J.A. Figueroa, S.A. Castro, M. Reyes, S. Teillier
    Urban park area and age determine the richness of native and exotic plants in parks of a Latin American city: Santiago as a case study
    Urban Ecosyst (2018) 21: 645
  6. M.F. Matus, C. Vilos, B.A. Cisterna, E. Fuentesa, I. Palomo
    Nanotechnology and primary hemostasis: Differential effects of nanoparticles on platelet responses
    Vascular Pharmacology 101 (2018) 1-8
  7. J. Ábrigo, F. Campos, F. Simon, C. Riedel, D. Cabrera, C. Vilos, C. Cabello-Verrugio
    TGF-β requires the activation of canonical and non-canonical signalling pathways to induce skeletal muscle atrophy
    Biol. Chem. 2018; 399(3): 253-264
  8. D. Riquelme, I. Silva, A.M. Philp, J.P. Huidobro-Toro, O. Cerda, J.S. Trimmer, E. Leiva-Salcedo
    Subcellular Localization and Activity of TRPM4 in Medial Prefrontal Cortex Layer 2/3
    Front. Cell. Neurosci., 30 January 2018
  9. M.F. Matus, M. Ludueña, C. Vilos, I. Palomo, M.M. Mariscal
    Atomic-level characterization and cilostazol affinity of poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles conjugated with differentially charged hydrophilic molecules
    Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 2018, 9, 1328–1338
  10. V. Cazanga, A. Hernandez, B. Morales, T. Pelissier, L. Constandil
    Antinociception Induced by Copper Salt Revisited: Interaction with Ketamine in Formalin-Induced Intraplantar and Orofacial Pain in Mice
    Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache 32 (2018) 247–257
  11. J. Ábrigo, A.A. Elorza, C.A. Riedel, C. Vilos, F. Simon, D. Cabrera, L. Estrada, C. Cabello-Verrugio
    Role of Oxidative Stress as Key Regulator of Muscle Wasting during Cachexia
    Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity Volume 2018, Article ID 2063179, 17 pages
  12. P. Gutiérrez-Tapia, M.I. Azócar, S.A. Castro
    A citizen-based platform reveals the distribution of functional groups inside a large city from the Southern Hemisphere: e-Bird and the urban birds of Santiago (Central Chile)
    Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (2018) 91:3
  13. M.V. Donoso, F. Hernández, T. Villalón, C. Acuña-Castillo, J.P. Huidobro-Toro
    Pharmacological dissection of the cellular mechanisms associated to the spontaneous and the mechanically stimulated ATP release by mesentery endothelial cells: roles of thrombin and TRPV
    Purinergic Signalling (2018) 14:121–139
  14. M.V. Donoso, M.J. Mascayano, I.M. Poblete, J.P. Huidobro-Toro
    Increased ATP and ADO Overflow From Sympathetic Nerve Endings and Mesentery Endothelial Cells Plus Reduced Nitric Oxide Are Involved in Diabetic Neurovascular Dysfunction
    Front. Pharmacol., 2018, 9:546
  15. C. Godoy-Guzmán, C. Nuñez, P. Orihuela, A. Campos, V. Carriel
    Distribution of extracellular matrix molecules in human uterine tubes during the menstrual cycle: a histological and immunohistochemical analysis
    J. Anat. (2018) 233, pp73-85
  16. M. Moreno, A. Zacarias; A. Porzel, L. Velasquez, G. Gonzalez, M. Alegría-Arcos, F. Gonzalez-Nilo, E.K.U. Gross
    IR and NMR spectroscopic correlation of enterobactin by DFT
    Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 198 (2018) 264-277


  1. V. Latapiat, F.E. Rodríguez, F. Godoy, F.A. Montenegro, N.P. Barrera, J.P. Huidobro-Toro
    P2X4 Receptor in Silico and Electrophysiological Approaches Reveal Insights of Ivermectin and Zinc Allosteric Modulation
    Front. Pharmacol., 15 December 2017
  2. D. Fano, C. Vásquez-Velásquez, C. Gonzales-Castañeda, E. Guajardo-Correa, P.A. Orihuela, G.F. Gonzales
    N-Butanol and Aqueous Fractions of Red Maca Methanolic Extract Exerts Opposite Effects on Androgen and Oestrogens Receptors (Alpha and Beta) in Rats with Testosterone-Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
    Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2017, Article ID 9124240, 10 pages
  3. P. Reuquen, E. Guajardo-Correa, M.L.Oróstica, C. Curotto, A. Parada-Bustamante, H. Cardenas, P.A.Orihuela
    Prolactin gene expression in the pituitary of rats subjected to vaginocervical stimulation requires Erk-1/2 signaling
    Reproductive Biology 17 (2017) 357-362
  4. G.E. Zúñiga, A. Tapia, A. Arenas, R.A. Contreras, G. Zúñiga-Libano
    Phytochemistry and biological properties of Aristotelia chilensis a Chilean blackberry: a review
    Phytochem Rev (2017) 16:1081–1094
  5. Won Il Choi, A. Sahu, C. Vilos, N. Kamaly, Seong-Min Jo, Jin Hyung Lee, Giyoong Tae
    Bioinspired Heparin Nanosponge Prepared by Photo-crosslinking for Controlled Release of Growth Factors
    Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 14351
  6. E. Leiva, J.P. Huidobro-Toro
    Neurotransmitter Storage and Recycling: Two Transporter Families Govern Complementary Synaptic Roles with Vast Medical Applications and Therapeutic Perspectives: A Commentary
    Open Access J Neurol Neurosurg 4(3): OAJNN.MS.ID.555636 (2017)
  7. G.O. Carvallo, S.A. Castro
    Invasions but not extinctions change phylogenetic diversity of angiosperm assemblage on southeastern Pacific Oceanic islands
    PLoS ONE 12(8): e0182105
  8. J.L. Marcos, D. Galleguillos, T. Pelissier, A. Hernández, L. Velásquez, L. Villanueva, L. Constandil
    Role of the spinal TrkB-NMDA receptor link in the BDNF-induced long-lasting mechanical hyperalgesia in the rat: A behavioural study
    Eur. J. Pain. 21 (2017) 1688-1696
  9. A. Parada-Bustamante, C. Molina, C. Valencia, M. Flórez, M.C. Lardone, F. Argandoña, A. Piottante, M. Ebensperguer, P.A. Orihuela, A. Castro
    Disturbed testicular expression of the estrogen-metabolizing enzymes CYP1A1 and COMT in infertile men with primary spermatogenic failure: possible negative implications on Sertoli cells
    Andrology, 2017, 5, 486-494 | Published May
  10. Francisca Uribe, M. Cantín, J.P. Alister, C. Vilos, R. Fariña, S. Olate
    Proteína Morfogenética Ósea y su Opción como Tratamiento de la Fisura Alveolar
    Int. J. Morphol., 35(1):310-318, 2017 | Published Mar
  11. D. Jara-Hermosilla, D. Barros-Vásquez, A. Muñoz-Rojas, S. Castro-Morales, C. Ortiz-Calderón
    Enzymatic reduction of hydrogen peroxide on Polypogon australis plants grown in a copper mining liquid waste
    South African Journal of Botany 109 (2017) 42–49 | Published Mar
  12. E. Fuentes, B. Yameen, Soung- Jae Bong, C. Salvador-Morales, I. Palomo, I. Palomo, C. Vilos
    Antiplatelet effect of differentially charged PEGylated lipid-polymer nanoparticles
    Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine 13 (2017) 1089-1094 | Published April
  13. H. Köhler, R.A. Contreras, M. Pizarro, R. Cortés-Antíquera, G.E. Zúñiga
    Antioxidant Responses Induced by UVB Radiation in Deschampsia antarctica Desv.
    Front. Plant Sci. 8:921 | Published 31 May 2017
  14. M. Agurto, R.O. Schlechter, G. Armijo, E. Solano, C. Serrano, R.A. Contreras, G.E. Zúñiga, P. Arce-Johnson
    RUN1 and REN1 Pyramiding in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Crimson Seedless) Displays an Improved Defense Response Leading to Enhanced Resistance to Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe necator)
    Front. Plant Sci. 8:758 | Published 12 May 2017
  15. J.P. Peñaloza, V. Márquez-Miranda, M. Cabaña-Brunod, R. Reyes-Ramírez, F.M. Llancalahuen, C.Vilos, F. Maldonado-Biermann, L.A. Velásquez, J.A. Fuentes, F.D. González-Nilo, M. Rodríguez-Díaz, Carolina Otero
    Intracellular trafficking and cellular uptake mechanism of PHBV nanoparticles for targeted delivery in epithelial cell lines
    Peñaloza et al. J Nanobiotechnol (2017) 15:1 | Published 3 Jan
  16. Won Il Choi, B. Yameen, C. Vilos, A. Sahu, Seong-Min Jo, Daekyung Sung, Giyoong Tae
    Optimization of fibrin gelation for enhanced cell seeding and proliferation in regenerative medicine applications
    Polym. Adv. Technol. 2017, 28 124-129 | Published Jan
  17. A. León, P. Reuquen, C. Garín, R. Segura, P. Vargas, P. Zapata, P.A. Orihuela
    FTIR and Raman Characterization of TiO2 Nanoparticles Coated with Polyethylene Glycol as Carrier for 2-Methoxyestradiol
    Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 49 | Published 4 Jan
  18. M.P. Pinto, M. Arce, B. Yameen, C. Vilos
    Targeted brain delivery nanoparticles for malignant gliomas
    Nanomedicine 12 (2017) 59-72; Published (web) 23 Nov


  1. P. Díaz, H. Cardenas, P.A. Orihuela
    Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) did not affect cell viability despite increased androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen gene expression in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP
    Andrologia 2016; 48: 922–926 | Published Oct
  2. B.A Cisterna, N. Kamaly, Won Il Choi, A. Tavakkoli, O.C. Farokhzad, C. Vilos
    Targeted nanoparticles for colorectal cancer
    Nanomedicine (2016) 11, 2443-2456 | Published Sep
  3. N. Guerrero-Leiva, S.A. Castro, M.A. Rubio, C. Ortiz-Calderón
    Retention of Atmospheric Particulate by Three Woody Ornamental Species in Santiago, Chile
    Water Air Soil Pollut (2016) 227: 435 | Published 8 Nov
  4. A. Parada-Bustamante, M.L. Oróstica, P.Reuquen, L.M. Zuñiga, H. Cardenas, P.A. Orihuela
    The role of mating in oviduct biology
    Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 875-883, 2016 | Published 25 Oct
  5. C. Valencia, C. Molina, M. Florez, J. Buñay, R.D. Moreno, P.A. Orihuela, A. Castro, A. Parada-Bustamante
    2-hydroxyoestradiol and 2-methoxyoestradiol, two endogenous oestradiol metabolites, induce DNA fragmentation in Sertoli cells
    Andrologia 2016, 48, 1294-1306 | Published Dec
  6. N. Guerrero-Leiva, S.A. Castro, M.A. Rubio, C. Ortiz-Calderón
    Retention of Atmospheric Particulate by Three Woody Ornamental Species in Santiago, Chile
    M.A. et al. Water Air Soil Pollut (2016) 227: 435; Published Dec 2016
  7. W.I. Choi, A. Sahu, C. Vilos, J.H. Lee, S. Kim, Y.K. Hong, D. Sul, S.W. Hwang, S.H. Leeg, G. Tae
    Chitosan functionalized thermosponge nano-carriers for prolonged retention and local delivery of chymopapain at the nucleus pulposus in porcine discs ex vivo
    RSC Adv., 2016,6, 90967-90972; Published (Web) 14 Sep 2016
  8. B.A. Cisterna, N. Kamaly, Won Il Choi, A. Tavakkoli, O.C. Farokhzad, C. Vilos
    Targeted nanoparticles for colorectal cancer
    Nanomedicine (2016) 11, 2443-2456; Published Sep 2016
  9. O. Valdés Lizama, C. Vilos, E. Durán-Lara
    Techniques of Structural Characterization of Dendrimers
    Current Organic Chemistry, 2016, 20, 2591-2605; Published Sep 2016
  10. S. Carrasco, A. Varas, J. Rogan, M. Kiwi, J.A. Valdivia
    Multibody expansion of particle interactions: How many-body is a particular element in a cluster
    Phys. Rev. B 94, 075435; Published 23 Aug 2016
  11. F.A. Peralta, J.P. Huidobro-Toro
    Zinc as Allosteric Ion Channel Modulator: Ionotropic Receptors as Metalloproteins
    Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1059; Published 2 Jul 2016
  12. A. Espinoza, R. Contreras, G.E. Zúñiga, R. Herrera, M.A. Moya-León, L. Norambuena, M. Handford
    FcLDP1, a Gene Encoding a Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) Domain Protein, Responds to Brassinosteroids and Abscisic Acid during the Development of Fruits in Fragaria chiloensis
    Front. Plant Sci. 7:788; Published 14 Jun 2016
  13. C. Salvador-Morales, B. Brahmbhatt, V. Márquez-Miranda, I. Araya-Duran, J. Canan, F. Gonzalez-Nilo, C. Vilos, J. Cebral, F. Mut, R. Lohner, B. Leong, G. Sundaresan, J. Zweit
    Mechanistic Studies on the Self-Assembly of PLGA Patchy Particles and Their Potential Applications in Biomedical Imagingelation for enhanced cell seeding and proliferation in regenerative medicine applications
    Langmuir, 2016, 32 (31), pp 7929–7942; Published 10 jun 2016
  14. M.B. Ashcroft, A. Casanova-Katny, K. Mengersen, T.N. Rosenstiel, J.D. Turnbull, J. Wasley, M.J. Waterman, G.E. Zúñiga, S.A. Robinson
    Bayesian methods for comparing species physiological and ecological response curves
    Ecological Informatics 34 (2016) 35-43; Published Jun 2016
  15. S.A. Castro, D.Saavedra, P. Gutiérrez-Tapia, P.M. Vergara
    The austral thrush (Turdus falcklandii) reduces the seed germination for the urban ornamental tree glossy privet (Ligustrum lucidum) in Santiago, Chile
    Castro, S.A., Saavedra, D., Gutiérrez-Tapia, P. et al. Braz. J. Bot (2016); Published 27 May 2016
  16. N. Kamal, G. Fredman, J.J.R. Fojas, M. Subramanian, W. II Choi, K. Zepeda, C. Vilos, M. Yu, S. Gadde, J. Wu, J. Milton, R. Carvalho Leitao, L.R. Fernandes, M. Hasan, H. Gao, V. Nguyen, J. Harris, I. Tabas,O.C. Farokhzad
    Targeted Interleukin-10 Nanotherapeutics Developed with a Microfluidic Chip Enhance Resolution of Inflammation in Advanced Atherosclerosis
    ACS Nano, 2016, 10 (5), pp 5280–5292; Published May 2016
  17. S.A. Castro, J.A. Figueroa, V. Escobedo
    Effect of the harvest year and cultivation temperature on the germination of Hirschfeldia incana (Brassicaceae): inferences on its invasiveness in Chile
    Braz. J. Bot (2016) 39: 193; Published Mar 2016
  18. N. Guerrero-Leiva, C. Ortiz-Calderón, S.A. Castro
    Differential effect of Manganese on the germination of Triglochin striata(Juncaginaceae) and Cotula coronopifolia (Asteraceae) in Laguna de Carrizal Bajo wetland, Atacama Region
    Gayana Bot. 73(1): 161-165, 2016.
  19. J.A. Figueroa, S. Teillier, N. Guerrero, C. Ray, S. Rivano, D. Saavedra, S.A. Castro
    Vascular flora in public spaces of Santiago, Chile.
    Gayana Bot. 73(1): 85-103, 2016


  1. E. Gartner, G. Rojas, S.A. Castro
    Compositional patterns of ruderal herbs in Santiago, Chile.
    Gayana Bot. 72(2): 192-202, 2015; Published Dec 2015
  2. D. Bravo, C.J. Maturana, T. Pelissier, A. Hernández, L. Constandil
    Interactions of pannexin 1 with NMDA and P2X7 receptors in centralnervous system pathologies: Possible role on chronic pain
    Pharmacological Research 101 (2015) 86–93; Published Nov 2015
  3. P. Reuquén, M.L. Oróstica, I. Rojas, P. Díaz, A. Parada-Bustamante, P.A. Orihuela
    Estradiol increases IP3 by a nongenomic mechanism in the smooth muscle cells from the rat oviduct
    Reproduction 150 (4) 331-341; Published Oct 2015
  4. B. Yameen, C .Vilos, W.I. Choi, A. Whyte, J. Huang, L. Pollit, O.C. Farokhzad
    Drug Delivery Nanocarriers from Fully Degradable PEGConjugated Polyester with Reduction-Responsive Backbone
    Chem. Eur. J. 2015, 21,11325 –11329; Published 3 Aug 2015
  5. M. Muñoz, C. Vilos, M. Cantín
    Prothrombin C20209T mutation in deep vein thrombosis: a case report
    Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015; 8(7): 11225–11229; Published 15 Jul 2015
  6. C. Vilos, L.A. Velasquez, P.I. Rodas, K. Zepeda, S-J. Bong, N. Herrera, M. Cantin, F. Simon, L. Constandil.
    Preclinical development and in vivo efficacy of ceftiofur-PLGA microparticles
    PLoS ONE 10(4): e0123335.; Published 27 April 2015
  7. J.P. Huidobro-Toro, V. Donoso, V. Flores, B. Santelices
    ATP and related purines stimulate motility, spatial congregation and coalescence in red algal spores.
    J. Phycol. 51, 247–254 (2015); Published April 2015
  8. S.A. Castro, R. Ovalle
    Cryptic invasion by Capsella rubella in Chile detected by ARMS-PCR
    Australian Journal of Botany, 2014, 62, 623-629; Published 26 Mar 2015
  9. P. Solar, G. González, C. Vilos, N. Herrera, N. Juica, M. Moreno, F. Simon, L. Velásquez.
    Multifunctional polymeric nanoparticles doubly loaded with SPION and ceftiofur retain their physical and biological properties
    Journal of Nanobiotechnology 2015 13:14; Published: 13 Feb 2015
  10. A. Parada-Bustamante, C. Valencia, P. Reuquén, P. Díaz, R. Rincón-Rodriguez, P.A. Orihuela.
    Role of 2-methoxyestradiol, an Endogenous Estrogen Metabolite, in Health and Disease
    Mini Rev Med Chem. 2015;15(5):427-38


  1. S.A. Castro, C. Espinosa, J.A. Figueroa
    Two haplotypes of Capsella bursa-pastoris (Brassicaceae) in Continental Chile support multiple introduction
    Gayana Bot. 71(2): 216-221, 2014; Published Dic 2014
  2. C. Vilos
    Nanotechnology in Preclinical and Clinical Drug Development
    Int. J. Med. Surg. Sci., 1(1):73-93, 2014
  3. W. Choi, N. Kamaly, L. Riol-Blanco, I-H. Lee, J. Wu, A. Swami, C. Vilos, B. Yameen, M. Yu, J. Shi, I. Tabas, U. von Andrian, S. Jon, O.C. Farokhzad
    A Solvent-free Thermosponge Nanoparticle Platform for Efficient Delivery of Labile Proteins
    Nano Lett., 2014, 14 (11), pp 6449–6455; Published (Web) 21 Oct 2014
  4. B. Yameen, W.I. Choi, C. Vilos, A. Swami, J. Shi, O.C. Farokhzad
    Insight into nanoparticle cellular uptake and intracellular targeting
    Journal of Controlled Release 190, 485-499
  5. C. Vilos, L. Constandil, P. I. Rodas, M. Cantin, K. Zepeda, N. Herrera, L. A. Velasquez
    Evaluation of ceftiofur–PHBV microparticles in rats
    Journal: Drug Design, Development and Therapy 2014: 8, 651-666
  6. C. Otero, J. P. Peñaloza, P. I. Rodas, R. Fernández-Ramires, L. Velasquez, and J. E. Jung5
    Temporal and spatial regulation of cAMP signalling in disease: role of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases
    Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology (Accepted)
  7. C. Echeverría, I. Montorfano, T. Hermosilla, R. Armisén, L. Velásquez, C. Cabello-Verrugio, D. Varela, F. Simon
    Endotoxin Induces Fibrosis in Vascular Endothelial Cells through a Mechanism Dependent on Transient Receptor Protein Melastatin 7 Activity
    PLoS One 9, 11
  8. D. Sarmiento, I. Montorfano, O. Cerda, M. Cáceres, A. Becerra, C. Cabello-Verrugio, A. Elorza, C. Riedel, P. Tapia, L. Velásquez, D. Varela, F. Simon
    Increases in reactive oxygen species enhance vascular endothelial cell migration through a mechanism dependent on the transient receptor potential melastatin 4 ion channel
    Microvasc Res S0026-2862 (14) 00032-6


  1. A. Vergara-Jaque, J. Comer, L. Monsalve, F. D. González-Nilo and C. Sandoval
    Computationally Efficient Methodology for Atomic-Level Characterization of Dendrimer−Drug Complexes: A Comparison of Amine- and Acetyl-Terminated PAMAM
    Journal Physical Chemistry B 117, 6801-6813
  2. C. Otero, M. Linke, P. Sanchez, A. González, Iwan A.T. Schaap
    Propranolol Restricts the Mobility of Single EGF-Receptors on the Cell Surface before Their Internalization
    PLoS One 8, 6
  3. P.A. Zapata, H. Palza, L.S. Cruz, I. Lieberwirth, F. Catalina, T. Corrales, F.M. Rabagliati
    Polyethylene and poly(ethylene-co-1-octadecene) composites with TiO2 based nanoparticles by metallocenic “in situ” polymerization
    Polymer 54, 2690-2698
  4. F.M. Rabagliati, D.A. Canales, D.E. Yanez, P. Zamora, P.A. Zapata
    Further studies on homo- and copolymerization of styrene through cpticl3-mao initiator system
    Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society 58 (4), 2082-2086
  5. P. Solar and L. Velásquez
    Consequences of nongenomic actions of estradiol on pathogenic genital tract response
    Journal of Molecular Signaling 8:1 (Doi: 10.1186/1750-2187-8-1)
  6. C. Vilos, F.A. Morales, P.A. Solar, N.S. Herrera, F.D. Gonzalez-Nilo, D.A. Aguayo, H.L. Mendoza, J. Comer, M.L. Bravo, P.A. González. S. Kato, M.A. Cuello, C. Alonso, E.J. Bravo, E.L. Bustamante, G.I. Owen, L.A. Velásquez
    Paclitaxel-PHBV nanoparticles and their toxicity to endometrial and primary ovarian cancer cells
    Biomaterials 34 (16), 4098-4108
  7. C. Vilos, M. Gutiérrez, R. Escobar, F. Morales, J. Denardin, L. Velásquez and D. Altbir
    Superparamagnetic Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) Nanoparticles For Biomedical Applications
    Electron. J. Biotechnol. vol.16 no.5; Published Sep 2013
  8. R. Rincón-Rodriguez, M.L. Oróstica, P. Díaz, P. Reuquén, H. Cárdenas, P. Orihuela
    Changes in the gene expression pattern induced by 2-methoxyestradiol in the mouse uterus
    Endocrine 44 (3), 773-8
  9. F. Rabagliati, D. Yáñez, D. Canales, R. Quijada, P. Zapata
    Styrene copolymerization using a metallocene-MAO initiator system. Homo- and copolymerization of styrene with some cycloalkenes
    Polymer Bulletin 70 (7), 2111-2123


  1. M.L. Orostica, L.M. Zuñiga, D. Utz, A. Parada-Bustamante, L. Velásquez, H. Cárdenas, P. Orihuela
    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha is the signal induced by mating to shutdown a 2-methoxyestradiol nongenomic action necessary to accelerate oviductal egg transport in the rat
    Reproduction 44 (doi:10.1530/REP-12-0389)
  2. F. Morales, L. Constandil, T. Pelissier, A. Hernández, C. Laurido
    Antinociceptive interaction of (+/-)-CPP and propentofylline in monoarthritic rats
    Arthritis Res Ther. 14(4):R196
  3. L. Constandil, M. Goich, A. Hernández, L. Bourgeais, M. Cazorla, M. Hamon, L. Villanueva, T. Pelissier
    Cyclotraxin-B, a new TrkB antagonist, and glial blockade by propentofylline, equally prevent and reverse cold allodynia induced by BDNF or partial infraorbital nerve constriction in mice.
    J Pain. 13(6):579-89
  4. V. Brache, R. Sitruk-Ware, A. Williams, D. Blithe, H. Croxatto, N. Kumar, S. Kumar, Y.Y.Tsong, I. Sivin, A. Nath, H. Sussman, L. Cochon, M.J. Miranda, V. Reyes, A. Faundes, D. Mishell
    Effects of a novel estrogen-free, progesterone receptor modulator contraceptive vaginal ring on inhibition of ovulation, bleeding patterns and endometrium in normal women.
    Contraception 85, 480-488
  5. C. Laurido, A. Hernández, T. Pelissier, L. Constandil
    Antinociceptive effect of rat D-serine racemase inhibitors, L-serine-O-sulfate, and L-erythro-3-hydroxyaspartate in an arthritic pain model.
    Scientific World Journal 2012, 279147
  6. A. Hermanny, M.V. Bahamondes, F. Fazano, N.M Marchi, M.E. Ortiz, M.H. Genghini, H. Croxatto, L. Bahamondes
    In vitro assessment of some sperm functions following exposure to levonorgestrel in human fallopian tubes.
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 10, 8
  7. P.A. Zapata, H. Palza, K. Delgado and F. Rabagliati
    Novel antimicrobial polyethylene composites prepared by metallocenic in situ polymerization with TiO2-based nanoparticles
    Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 50, 4055-4062
  8. P. Miranda, I. Suazo Galdames, D. Zavando, P. Arenas, L. Velásquez, C. Vilos, M. Cantín
    In vivo biocompatibility of the PLGA microparticles in parotid gland
    Rom J Morphol Embryol (in press)
  9. C. Zayas, I. Tobar, J. Tobar, M. Lastre, D. Arencibia, L. Velásquez and O. Perez
    Evaluación citotóxica de Adyuvantes Finlay en células de fibroblasto de embrión de pollo y de salmon
    Toxicology on line. (37): 30-46
  10. O. Saavedra Dahm, P. Solar, H. Díaz, A. Mandel, M.E. Casado, M.S Rivera, P. Orihuela, L. Velásquez, H. Cárdenas
    La heterogeneidad del alfabetismo en salud y el consentimiento informado en Chile
    Sociedad Chilena de Psicología Clínica 30, 125-130
  11. P. Diaz, P. Solar, N. Juica, P. Orihuela, H. Cárdenas, M. Christodoulides, R. Vargas, L. Velásquez
    Differential expression of extracellular matrix components in the Fallopian tubes throughout the menstrual cycle
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 10 (1), 56
  12. O. Saavedra Dahm, P. Solar, H. Díaz, A. Mandel, M.E. Casado, M.S Rivera, P. Orihuela, L. Velásquez, H. Cardenas
    The case against template informed consent procedures in biomedical research: heterogeneity in health literacy in Chile
    Terapia Psicológica 30, 127-131
  13. C. Vilos and L. Velásquez
    Therapeutic strategies based on polymeric microparticles
    Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 672760, 9 pages; Accepted 13 March 2012
  14. C. Vilos, L. Constandil, N. Herrea, P. Solar, J. Escobar-Fica and L. Velásquez
    Ceftiofur-loaded PHBV microparticles: a potential formulation for a long acting antibiotic to treat animal infections
    Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 15, No 4 (2012); Published 15 Jul 2012
  15. A. Costoya, F. Morales, P. Borda, R. Vargas, J. Fuhrer, N. Salgado, H. Cárdenas, L. Velásquez
    Mycoplasmateceae species are not found in fallopian tubes of women with tubo peritoneal infertility
    Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases 2012;16(3):273-278; Accepted 4 January 2012
  16. L. Velásquez, K. García, F. Morales, J. E. Heckels, P. Orihuela, P. Rodas, M. Christodoulides and H. Cárdenas
    Neisseria gonorrhoeae Pilus Attenuates Cytokine Response of Human Fallopian Tube Explants
    Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 491298, 7 pages; Accepted 16 October 2011
  17. M.F. Vargas, A.A. Tapia-Pizarro, S.P. Henriquez, M. Quezada, A.M. Salvatierra, G. Noe, D.J. Munroe,L. Velásquez, H. Croxatto
    Effect of single post-ovulatory administration of levonorgestrel on gene expression profile during the receptive period of the human endometrium
    Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 2012 Jan 25;48(1):25-36; Published Feb 2012


  1. L. Constandil, R. Aguilera, M. Goich, A, Hernández, P. Alvarez, C. Infante, T. Pelissier
    Involvement of spinal cord BDNF in the generation and maintenance of chronic neuropathic pain in rats.
    Brain Res Bull. 86(5-6):454-459
  2. E. Weisberg, H. Croxatto, J.K. Findlay, H.G. Burger, I.S. Fraser
    A randomized study of the effect of mifepristone alone or in conjunction with ethinyl estradiol on ovarian function in women using the etonogestrel-releasing subdermal implant, Implanon
    Contraception, 84, 600-608
  3. L. Acuña, G.I. Suazo, D. Zavando, S. Elgueta, L. Velásquez, C. Vilos and M. Cantín
    Morphometric and histopathologic changes in skeletal muscle induced for injectable PLGA microparticles
    Int. J. Morphol., 29(2) 403-408
  4. A. Tapia, C. Vilos, J.C. Marín, H. Croxatto, L. Devoto
    Bioinformatic detection of E47, E2F1 and SREBP1 transcription factors as potential regulators of genes associated to acquisition of endometrial receptivity
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 9, 14
  5. M. Ríos, A. Parada-Bustamante, L. Velásquez, H. Croxatto, P. Orihuela
    Participation of the oviductal s100 calcium binding protein G in the genomic effect of estradiol that accelerates oviductal embryo transport in mated rats
    Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 23, 69
  6. J. Shi, Z. Xiao, A.R. Votruba, C. Vilos, O.C Farokhzad
    Differentially charged hollow core/shell lipid-polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles for small interfering RNA delivery
    Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 50, 7027-31
  7. P.I. Rodas, A.N. Trombert, G.C. Mora
    A holin remnant protein encoded by STY1365 is involved in envelope stability of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 321, 58-66
  8. A.N. Trombert, P.I. Rodas, G.C. Mora
    Reduced invasion to human cell lines of S. Typhi carrying S. Typhimurium sopD2 gene
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 322, 1574
  9. P. Alvarez, A. Brun, A. Labertrandie, J. Lopez, A. Correa, L. Constandil, A. Hernández, and T. Pelissier
    Antihyperalgesic effects of clomipramine and tramadol in a model of posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathic pain in mice
    J Orofac Pain. 25(4):354-263
  10. O. Flores, H. Pérez, L. Valladares, C. Morgan, A. Gatica, H. Burgos, R. Olivares, A. Hernández
    Hidden prenatal malnutrition in the rat: role of β1-adrenoceptors on synaptic plasticity in the frontal cortex
    J Neurochem doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2011.07429.x.


  1. A. Parada-Bustamante, P. Orihuela, M. Ríos, C. Cuevas, M. Orósrtica, L. Velásquez, M.J. Villalón, H. Croxatto
    A non-genomic signaling pathway shut down by mating changes the estradiol-induced gene expression profile in the rat oviduct
    Reproduction 139: 631-644
  2. P. Orihuela
    Ulipristal: a progesterone receptor antagonist as an emergency contraceptive
    Experts Reviews in Obstetrics & Gynecology 5: 13-17.
  3. K. García, P. Rubilar, M. Vargas, H. Cárdenas, M. Ríos, P. Orihuela, R. Vargas, J. Fuher, J.E. Heckels, M. Christodoulides, L. Velásquez
    Nitric oxide is not involved in Neisseria gonorrohoeae-induced cellular damage of human Fallopian tubes in vitro
    Biol Res 43: 39-50, 2010; Accepted 28 Jan 2010
  4. M. Cantín, C. Vilos and G.I. Suazo
    Nanodentistry: the Future of Dentistry Based on Nanotechnology Systems
    Int. J. Odontostomat., 4(2) 127-132
  5. C. Jesam, A.M. Salvatierra, J.L. Schwartz,H. Croxatto
    Suppression of follicular rupture with meloxicam, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor: potential for emergency contraception
    Human Reproduction 25(2), 368-373
  6. G. Noé, H. Croxatto, A.M. Salvatierra, V. Reyes, C. Villarroel, C. Muñoz, G. Morales, A. Retamales
    Contraceptive efficacy of emergency contraception with levonorgestrel given before or after ovulation
    Contraception 81(5), 414-420
  7. V. Brache, L. Cochon, C. Jesam, R. Maldonado, A.M. Salvatierra, D.P Levy, E. Gainer and H. Croxatto
    Immediate pre-ovulatory administration of 30 mg ulipristal acetate significantly delays follicular rupture
    Hum. Reprod. (2010) 25 (9): 2256-2263; Published 31 Jun 2010
  8. G. Noé, R. Sitruk-Ware, F. Zegers-Hochschild, B. Variano, J.C. Montero, P. Arriagada, A. Li, F.Z. Stanczyk, J.C. Felix, D. Mishell, H. Croxatto
    Endometrial effect of two progesterone vaginal ring doses in estrogen-treated postmenopausal women
    Climacteric 13, 433-441
  9. L. Ebensperger, N. Ramírez-Otarola, C. León, M.E. Ortiz, H. Croxatto
    Early fitness consequences and hormonal correlates of parental behaviour in the social rodent, Octodon degus
    Physiology & Behavior 101, 509-517
  10. O. Flores, H. Núñez, H. Pérez, C. Morgan, R. Soto-Moyano, L. Valladares, H. Burgos, R. Olivares, A. Hernández
    Beta-Adrenoceptor blockade depresses molecular and functional plasticities in the rat neocortex
    Brain Res Bull, 82(5-6) 284-288
  11. R. Noseda, L. Constandil, L. Bourgeais, M. Chalus, L. Villanueva
    Changes of meningeal excitability mediated by corticotrigeminal networks: a link for the endogenous modulation of migraine pain
    The Journal of Neuroscience, 27 October 2010, 30(43): 14420-14429; Published 27 Oct 2010
  12. H. Burgos, A. Castillo, O. Flores, G. Puentes, C. Morgan, A. Gatica, C. Cofré, A. Hernández, C. Laurido, L. Constandil
    Effect of modafinil on learning performance and neocortical long-term potentiation in rats
    Brain Res Bull 83(5), 238-244
  13. H. Pérez, R. Soto-Moyano, S. Ruiz, A. Hernández, W. Sierralta, R. Olivares, H. Núñez, O. Flores, C. Morgan, L. Valladares, A. Gatica, F.J. Flores
    A putative role for hypothalamic glucocorticoid receptors in hypertension induced by prenatal undernutrition in the rat
    Neurosci Lett 483(1), 41-46
  14. P.I. Rodas, I.C. Contreras, G.C. Mora
    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi has a 4,1 kb genetic island inserted within the sapABCDF operon that causes loss of resistance to the antimicrobial peptide protamine
    J. Antimicrob Chemother 65 1624-1630


  1. P. Orihuela, L. Zúñiga, M. Ríos, A. Parada-Bustamante, W.D. Sierralta, L. Velásquez, H. Croxatto
    Mating changes the subcellular distribution and the functionality of estrogen receptors in the rat oviduct
    Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 7: 139-149
  2. J. Pizarro, M.A. Rubio and A. Matta
    Difussion of Fe, Mn, Mo and Sb in the sediment-water interface in a shallow lake, laguna Carén, Santiago (Chile)
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 12, 2336-2344
  3. M.A. Rubio, E. Lissi, G. Villena, Y.F. Elshorbany, J. Kleffmann, R. Kurtenbach, and P. Wiesen
    Simultaneous measurements of formaldehyde and nitrous acid in dews and gas phase in the atmosphere of Santiago, Chile
    Atmospheric Environment 43, 6106-6109
  4. Y.F. Elshorbany, J. Kleffmann, R. Kurtenbach, E. Lissi, M. Rubio, G. Villena, E. Gramsch, A.R. Rickard, M.J. Pilling and P. Wiesen
    Summertime photochemical ozone formation in Santiago, Chile
    Atmospheric Environment 43, 6398-6407



  1. A single-dose and extended-release injectable pharmaceutical composition comprising polymer-nanoparticles composed of polyethylene glycol-bonded poly-ethylene glycol (MPEG-PLLA), loaded with drugs which inhibit the panexin-1 channel, including carbenoxolone, probenicid 10 panx, or a Combination thereof, useful for treating or preventing chronic pain, in animals or humans

    Solicitation date: 30-12-2015
    License Nº.: Solicitud N°: 201503772 (L. Constandil, C. Vilos, D. Brabo López, P. Ramírez, J. Retamal, T. Pelissier Serrano)
  2. Pain treatment method involving the use of spinal Pannexins

    Solicitation date: 29-07-2015
    License Nº.: Solicitud Nº: 201502114 (D. Bravo, L. Constandil, T. Pelissier, A. Hernández)


  1. Subdermal implant for continuous delivery of antiparasitic agent for dogs and animals of agricultural interest

    Solicitation date: 17-04-2014
    License Nº.: Solicitud 201400989 (H.Cárdenas)


  1. Subdermal implant for storage and continuous delivery of an anticancer agent for dogs, contained in zeolite nano and microparticles and oil medium

    Solicitation date: 31-12-2013
    License Nº.: Solicitud 201303807 (HCárdenas, P.Díaz, P.Gálvez, F.Rojas, C.Segovia, P.Orihuela, D.Altbir)


  1. Biodegradable and biocompatible nanoparticles of PLGA, loaded with the drug for human use, pentoxifylline

    Solicitation date: 16-11-2012
    License Nº.: Solicitud 201203209 (L.Constandil, C.Vilos)


  1. Intravaginal ring to inhibit ovulation in women made from vinyl polymers where it is loaded and subsequently released meloxicam or piroxicam

    Solicitation date: 26-08-2011
    License Nº.: 201203423 (D. Altbir, H. Croxatto, P. Galvez, F.Rabagliti, L Velazquez, P. Zapata, H. Cardenas)


  1. Injectable veterinary composition for controlled, sustained release of ceftiofur and florfenicol in animal species, based on microparticles Polihidroxibutirato hidroxivalerato (PHBV)

    Solicitation date: 21-10-2010
    License Nº.: Solicitud 201102901 (C.Vilos, L.Velásquez, P.Orihuela, M.Ríos)
  2. Injectable formula for the controlled release for the administration of Ceftiofur and Florfenicol in animal species, based on microparticles Acido Poliláctico-Glicólico (PLGA)

    Solicitation date: 21-10-2010
    License Nº.: Solicitud 201102902 (C.Vilos, L.Velásquez, P.Orihuela, M.Ríos)

Cristián Vilos

(56 71) 2200 200
Center for Medical Reseach – School of Medicine,
Lab of Nanomedicine and Targeted Delivery, University of Talca.
AV.Lircay s/n Talca, Chile

Investigation Areas:

  • Nanobiomedicine


Investigadores Titulares

Associate researchers


Technical Support


Associated Institutions: